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Chapter 6 Employee Testing and Selection

Human Resource Management, 12e (Dessler)

Chapter 6 Employee Testing and Selection

1) Which of the following terms refers to hiring workers who have criminal backgrounds without proper safeguards?

A) employment malpractice

B) negligent hiring

C) unreliable testing

D) improper hiring

E) invalid screening

Answer: B

Explanation: Negligent hiring means hiring employees with criminal records or other problems who then use access to customers' homes (or similar opportunities) to commit crimes. Employers can be sued for negligent hiring.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 192

Chapter: 6

Objective: 1

Skill: Concept

2) A reliable employment test will most likely yield ________.

A) consistent scores when a person takes two alternate forms of the test

B) improved scores when a person takes the same test more than once in a single day

C) high scores when a person takes two alternate forms of the test on different occasions

D) similar scores when two different people are administered the test at different times

E) similar scores when two different people are administered the test at the same time

Answer: A

Explanation: Reliability is a test's first requirement and refers to its consistency: A reliable test is one that yields consistent scores when a person takes two alternate forms of the test or when he or she takes the same test on two or more different occasions.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 192

Chapter: 6

Objective: 1

Skill: Concept

3) If a person scores a 70 on an intelligence test on one day and scores 110 when retested on another day, you might conclude that this test is ________.

A) valid

B) invalid

C) reliable

D) unreliable

E) consistent

Answer: D

Explanation: Reliability is a test's first requirement and refers to its consistency: A reliable test is one that yields consistent scores when a person takes two alternate forms of the test or when he or she takes the same test on two or more different occasions. If a person scores 70 on an intelligence test on a Monday and 110 when retested on Tuesday, you probably wouldn't have much faith in the test.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 192

Chapter: 6

Objective: 1

Skill: Application

4) If a person scores a 78 on a test on one day and scores a 79 when retested on another day, you might conclude that this test is ________.

A) valid

B) invalid

C) reliable

D) unreliable

E) inconsistent

Answer: C

Explanation: A reliable test is one that yields consistent scores when a person takes two alternate forms of the test or when he or she takes the same test on two or more different occasions. Scores of 78 and 79 on the same test suggest that the test is reliable because it is measuring with consistency.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 192

Chapter: 6

Objective: 1

Skill: Application

5) Which of the following terms refers to the consistency of scores obtained by the same person when retested with alternate forms of the same test?

A) equivalency

B) reliability

C) expectancy

D) objectivity

E) validity

Answer: B

Explanation: Reliability is a test's first requirement and refers to its consistency: A reliable test is one that yields consistent scores when a person takes two alternate forms of the test or when he or she takes the same test on two or more different occasions.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 192

Chapter: 6

Objective: 1

Skill: Concept

6) Which of the following best describes how to use a retest estimate to assess reliability?

A) administer a test with content based on what a person actually needs to know to effectively perform the job in question

B) administer the same test to different people at two different points in time and compare their test scores at time 2 with the scores at time 1

C) administer different tests to a group of people and compare the range of collected test scores

D) administer the same test to a group of people and compare the range of collected test scores

E) administer the same test to the same people at two different points in time and compare their test scores at time 2 with their scores at time 1

Answer: E

Explanation: There are several ways to estimate consistency or reliability. You could administer the same test to the same people at two different points in time, comparing their test scores at time two with their scores at time one; this would be a retest estimate.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 192

Chapter: 6

Objective: 1

Skill: Application

7) Which of the following measures reliability by administering two different yet comparable tests and then comparing the two test scores?

A) retest estimate

B) equivalent form estimate

C) internal consistency assessment

D) internal comparison estimate

E) criterion validity measurement

Answer: B

Explanation: An equivalent form estimate involves administering a test and then administering what experts believe to be an equivalent test later. The internal reliability or consistency of the test is measured by an internal comparison estimate. A retest estimate involves administering the same test.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 193

Chapter: 6

Objective: 1

Skill: Concept

8) ________ is used as an estimate of reliability and involves administering a test with x number of items designed to assess a topic and then statistically analyzing the degree to which responses to the items vary together.

A) Retest estimate

B) Equivalent form estimate

C) Content validity estimate

D) Internal comparison estimate

E) Criterion validity estimate

Answer: D

Explanation: A test's internal consistency is another reliability measure. For example, a psychologist

includes 10 items on a test of vocational interests, believing that they all measure, in various ways, the test taker's interest in working outdoors. You administer the test and then statistically analyze the degree to which responses to these 10 items vary together. This would provide a measure of the internal reliability of the test and is known as an internal comparison estimate.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 193

Chapter: 6

Objective: 1

Skill: Concept

9) All of the following are used for estimating reliability of a test EXCEPT ________.

A) internal consistency

B) retest estimate

C) internal comparison estimate

D) equivalent form estimate

E) content validity measurement

Answer: E

Explanation: Validity indicates whether a test is measuring what it is supposed to be measuring, while reliability indicates whether a test is measuring something consistently. Internal comparison estimates are used to measure the internal consistency of a test. Retest estimates and internal comparison estimates also measure reliability.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 192-193

Chapter: 6

Objective: 1

Skill: Concept

10) When repetitive questions appear on a questionnaire, which of the following is most likely being measured?

A) test validity

B) retest estimate

C) equivalent form

D) internal consistency

E) criterion validity

Answer: D

Explanation: A test's internal consistency is measured by making internal comparison estimates. Internal consistency explains why apparently repetitive questions are found on some test questionnaires.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 193

Chapter: 6

Objective: 1

Skill: Concept

11) The unreliability of a test may be explained by all of the following EXCEPT ________.

A) poor sampling of question material

B) lack of equivalence between tests

C) inconsistent testing conditions

D) failure to predict job performance

E) lack of internal consistency

Answer: D

Explanation: Many things could cause a test to be unreliable. For example, the questions may

do a poor job of sampling the material or there might be errors due to changes in the testing conditions. Poor internal consistency or a lack of equivalence between tests would also explain a test's unreliability. Validity rather than reliability refers to a test's ability to measure what is intended to be measured, such as job performance.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 193

Chapter: 6

Objective: 1

Skill: Concept

12) Which of the following terms refers to the accuracy with which a test fulfills the function for which it was designed?

A) reliability

B) relevancy

C) validity

D) expectancy

E) consistency

Answer: C

Explanation: Test validity answers the question "Does this test measure what it's supposed to measure?" Validity refers to the correctness of the inferences that we can make based on the test and the accuracy with which a test or interview fulfills the function it was designed to fill.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 194

Chapter: 6

Objective: 1

Skill: Concept

13) Demonstrating the content validity of a test can be accomplished by showing that ________.

A) tasks performed on the test are general enough to apply to any type of job

B) higher test scores are statistically equivalent to proven, long-term job success

C) conditions under which the test is administered resemble the work situation

D) scores on the test are both internally and externally reliable

E) administered tests provide equivalent questions and scenarios

Answer: C

Explanation: Demonstrating content validity can be accomplished by showing that the tasks the person performs on the test are really a comprehensive and random sample of the tasks performed on the job. Content validity can also be shown by demonstrating that the conditions under which the person takes the test resemble the work situation, although this is not always easy.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 194

Chapter: 6

Objective: 1

Skill: Concept

14) The first step in the test validation process is ________.

A) creating a test battery

B) developing an expectancy chart

C) administering tests

D) analyzing the job

E) cross-validating

Answer: D

Explanation: The first step in validating a test is to analyze the job and write job descriptions and job specifications. The point is to specify the human traits and skills you believe are required for adequate job performance. Choosing tests and perhaps creating a test battery are part of the second step, which is followed by test administration. Relating test scores and criteria with an expectancy chart is the next step. Cross-validating is the final step in the process.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 195

Chapter: 6

Objective: 2

Skill: Concept

15) Which of the following is a graph that shows the relationship between test scores and job performance for a group of people?

A) performance standard

B) job analysis chart

C) digital dashboard

D) competency model

E) expectancy chart

Answer: E

Explanation: If there is a correlation between test and job performance, you can develop an expectancy chart during the process of validating an employment test. An expectancy chart presents the relationship between test scores and job performance graphically.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 196

Chapter: 6

Objective: 2

Skill: Concept

16) What is the primary disadvantage of using concurrent validation?

A) Current employees may not be representative of new applicants.

B) Current employees have not been employed for a significant time.

C) New applicants are recent college graduates with limited experience.

D) Limited correlation exists between high test scores and job performance.

E) Test batteries have not been administered by professional industrial psychologists.

Answer: A

Explanation: With concurrent validation, the test scores of current employees are compared with their current job performance. The disadvantage is that current employees may not be representative of new applicants because current employees have already had on-the-job training.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 196

Chapter: 6

Objective: 2

Skill: Concept

17) ________ validation is considered the most dependable method of validating an employment test.

A) Applicable

B) Subjective

C) Predictive

D) Concurrent

E) Statistical

Answer: C

Explanation: Predictive validation is a more dependable way to validate a test than concurrent validation, which is the other method. With predictive validation, a test is administered to applicants before hiring. Applicants are hired using only existing selection techniques, not the results of the new tests. After they have been on the job for some time, measure their performance and compare it to their earlier test scores. You can then determine whether you could have used their performance on the new test to predict their subsequent job performance.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 196

Chapter: 6

Objective: 2

Skill: Concept

18) The process of cross-validating a test involves all of the following EXCEPT ________.

A) using a new sample of employees

B) administering additional tests

C) assessing predictive validation

D) evaluating the relationship between scores and performance

E) developing and analyzing a scatter plot of scores versus performance

Answer: E

Explanation: Cross-validating involves administering additional tests to a new sample of employees. This final step also requires an assessment of predictive validation and an evaluation of the relationship between scores and job performance. An expectancy chart might be developed but not a scatter plot.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 197

Chapter: 6

Objective: 2

Skill: Concept

19) Firms should most likely use certified psychologists when developing and validating selection tests in order to ________.

A) protect the confidentiality of the firm

B) demonstrate familiarity with privacy laws

C) ensure compliance with EEO laws

D) persuade applicants of testing legitimacy

E) use scores for benchmarking purposes

Answer: C

Explanation: Firms should use a certified psychologist to develop and validate screening tests because of the EEO and ethical issues involved with testing. Selection tests should be consistent with equal employment laws, ethical, and considerate of the test taker's privacy.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 195, 197

Chapter: 6

Objective: 3

Skill: Concept

20) According to the American Psychological Association, all of the following are rights of test takers EXCEPT the right to expect ________.

A) confidentiality of test results

B) informed consent regarding the use of test results

C) scores to be interpreted by qualified individuals

D) tests to be the only selection tools for a job

E) fairness of the test for all who take it

Answer: D

Explanation: Tests should be used as supplements and not be the only selection tool. Under the American Psychological Association's (APA) standard for educational and psychological tests, test takers have the the right to the confidentiality of test results, the right to informed consent regarding use of these results, the right to expect that only people qualified to interpret the scores will have access to them, and the right to expect the test is fair to all.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 198

AACSB: Ethical Reasoning

Chapter: 6

Objective: 4

Skill: Concept

21) According to a survey conducted by the American Management Association, most employers who administer tests to applicants are measuring ________.

A) job skills

B) aptitudes

C) psychological behaviors

D) interpersonal behaviors

E) ethical opinions

Answer: A

Explanation: About 41% of companies that the American Management Association surveyed tested applicants for basic skills (defined as the ability to read instructions, write reports, and do arithmetic adequate to perform common workplace tasks). About 67% of the respondents required employees to take job skills tests, and 29% required some form of psychological measurement.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 199

Chapter: 6

Objective: 4

Skill: Concept

22) For over 40 years, Golden Creamery has been mixing up fresh, gourmet ice cream for customers. The company originated in Dallas and now boasts stores in 35 states. The business has primarily expanded by selling franchises to qualified candidates. Golden Creamery executives realize that the firm's success depends upon the success of each franchise. In the past, each individual franchise owner determined the best method for screening applicants. However, as the firm grows, Golden Creamery executives want to

standardize the hiring process by requiring all franchisees to use the same preemployment tests.

Which of the following supports the argument that Golden Creamery should use a certified psychologist to develop preemployment tests?

A) Golden Creamery needs to comply with all federal and state laws.

B) Golden Creamery competitors use psychologists for test development.

C) Golden Creamery strives to create a conscientious organizational culture.

D) Golden Creamery employees either work part-time or on flexible schedules.

E) Golden Creamery needs to ensure that tests are legally and ethically appropriate.

Answer: E

Explanation: Using a psychologist to develop and validate tests will help Golden Creamery remain protected both legally and ethically. Firms are not required by law to use a psychologist for test development.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 198

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Chapter: 6

Objective: 4

Skill: Critical Thinking

23) For over 40 years, Golden Creamery has been mixing up fresh, gourmet ice cream for customers. The company originated in Dallas and now boasts stores in 35 states. The business has primarily expanded by selling franchises to qualified candidates. Golden Creamery executives realize that the firm's success depends upon the success of each franchise. In the past, each individual franchise owner determined the best method for screening applicants. However, as the firm grows, Golden Creamery executives want to standardize the hiring process by requiring all franchisees to use the same preemployment tests.

Which of the following, if true, supports the argument that Golden Creamery should require franchise owners to use the firm's preemployment tests?

A) Hourly employees at Golden Creamery stores typically remain with the company long enough to be promoted to management positions.

B) Golden Creamery franchise owners pay an initial franchise fee and receive a percentage of sales royalties in return.

C) Annual turnover rates for hourly employees of Golden Creamery stores are three times the rate of comparable businesses.

D) Individuals interested in working at a Golden Creamery store can complete online applications on the firm's Web site.

E) Golden Creamery uses a series of videos to train new hires as well as a mentoring program that has proven successful in the past.

Answer: C

Explanation: High turnover rates suggest that Golden Creamery has problems hiring the most appropriate employees, which supports the implementation of a testing program. If hourly workers remained at the firm for a long time, then that would suggest the firm's current hiring practices do not need to be modified.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 199-200

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Chapter: 6

Objective: 4

Skill: Critical Thinking